Dysprosium-165 (Dy-165; T1/2 = 2.33 hours; Emaxbeta = 1.29 MeV) coupled with large inert carrier, ferric oxide macroaggregates is used in the intra-articular treatment of rheumatoid synovitis (11,12). Intra-articular injections of 250 mCi per joint are commonly used to treat chronic inflammatory joint conditions. It has extremely low leakage rates [0.12-0.3% of the injected dose (ID)] (13,14). Repeat injections in patients refractory to the first administration are feasible (15).

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