References

1. Andrews JR. Bony injuries about the elbow in the throwing athlete. Instructional Course Lect 1985;34:323-331.

2. Andrews JR, Craven WM. Lesions of the posterior compartment of the elbow. Clin Sports Med 1991;10:637-652.

3. Andrews JR, Timmerman LA. Outcome of elbow surgery in professional baseball players. Am J Sports Med 1995;23:407-413.

4. Barnes DA, Tullos HS. An analysis of 100 symptomatic baseball players. Am J Sports Med 1978;6:62-67.

5. Bennett GE. Shoulder and elbow lesions of the professional baseball pitcher. JAMA 1941;117:510-514.

6. Bennett GE. Elbow and shoulder lesions of baseball players. Am J Surg 1959;98:484-492.

7. DeHaven KE, Evarts CM. Throwing injuries of the elbow in athletes. Orthop Clin North Am 1973;4:801-808.

8. Indelicato PA, Jobe FW, Kerlan RK, et al. Correctable elbow lesions in professional baseball players: A review of 25 cases. Am J Sports Med 1979;7:72-75.

9. Jobe FW, Nuber G. Throwing injuries of the elbow. Clin Sports Med 1986;5:621-636.

10. King JW, Brelsford HS, Tullos HJ. Analysis of the pitching arm of the professional baseball pitcher. Clin Orthop 1969;67:116-123.

11. Slocum DB. Classification of elbow injuries from baseball pitching. Tex Med 1968;64:48-53.

12. Tullos HS, King JW. Throwing mechanism in sports. Orthop Clin North Am 1973;4:709-720.

13. Waris W. Elbow injuries of javelin throwers. Acta Chir Scand 1946;93:563-575.

14. Wilson FD, Andrews JR, Blackburn TA, et al. Valgus extension overload in the pitching elbow. Am J Sports Med 1983;11: 83-88.

15. Guerra JJ, Timmerman LA. Clinical anatomy, histology, and pathomechanics of the elbow in sports. Oper Tech Sports Med 1996;4:69-76.

16. Fleisig GS, Andrews JR, Dillman CJ, et al. Kinetics of baseball pitching with implications about injury mechanisms. Am J Sports Med 1995;23:233-239.

17. Fleisig GS, Escamilla RF. Biomechanics of the elbow in the throwing athlete. Oper Tech Sports Med 1996;4:62-68.

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20. Timmerman LA, Schwartz ML, Andrews JR. Preoperative evaluation of the ulnar collateral ligament by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography arthrography. Evaluation in 25 baseball players with surgical confirmation. Am J Sports Med 1994;22:26-31.

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22. Andrews JR, Carson WG. Arthroscopy of the elbow. Arthroscopy 1985;1:97-107.

23. Andrews JR, McKenzie PJ. Surgical techniques "supine" with arthroscopic surgical treatment of elbow pathology. In: McGinty JB, Caspari RB, Jackson RW, Poehling GG, eds. Operative arthroscopy, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1996:877-885.

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Lateral Positioning Elbow Surgery
FIGURE 15.1. The patient is positioned in the lateral decubitus position for arthroscopy. A tourniquet is placed on the arm. The arm hangs free over a padded bolster with the elbow flexed to 90°.
FIGURE 15.2. (A) The arthroscopic cannula should have no side fenestrations. (B) Side fenestrations allow extracapsular fluid extravasation.

FIGURE 15.3. The radiocapitellar joint is the initial landmark in the lateral aspect of the anterior compartment. The capitellum is visualized with elbow flexion and extension. A portion of the concave articular surface of the radial head usually can be seen.

FIGURE 15.3. The radiocapitellar joint is the initial landmark in the lateral aspect of the anterior compartment. The capitellum is visualized with elbow flexion and extension. A portion of the concave articular surface of the radial head usually can be seen.

Extension Articular Surface Elbow
FIGURE 15.4. The proximal radioulnar joint is visualized as the arthro-scope is withdrawn (arrows). The surgeon can view the marginal circumference of the radial head by taking the arm from pronation to supination (*).

FIGURE 15.5. The initial landmark in the medial aspect of the anterior compartment is the ulnohumeral articulation. The coronoid process (*) should be inspected for osteo-phytes, and the articulation between the coronoid fossa and trochlea should be examined. Extension of the elbow allows visualization of a portion of the trochlear articular surface.

FIGURE 15.5. The initial landmark in the medial aspect of the anterior compartment is the ulnohumeral articulation. The coronoid process (*) should be inspected for osteo-phytes, and the articulation between the coronoid fossa and trochlea should be examined. Extension of the elbow allows visualization of a portion of the trochlear articular surface.

FIGURE 15.6. The articulation between the olecranon process (*) and the trochlea is visualized in the posterior compartment. The articular surface of the posterior aspect of the trochlea is best visualized in flexion. With the elbow in extension, the articulation between the olecranon and the olecranon fossa (**) is assessed.

FIGURE 15.6. The articulation between the olecranon process (*) and the trochlea is visualized in the posterior compartment. The articular surface of the posterior aspect of the trochlea is best visualized in flexion. With the elbow in extension, the articulation between the olecranon and the olecranon fossa (**) is assessed.

FIGURE 15.7. The inferior portion of the capitellum (*) and inferior aspect of the proximal radioulnar joint (arrows) are best visualized from the direct lateral (soft spot) portal.
FIGURE 15.8. In a patient who has posterolateral rotary instability, the ulna rotates away from the distal humerus when the forearm is in forced supination. This rotation is visualized well from the direct lateral portal.
Chondropathie
FIGURE 16.1. Arthroscopic appearance, as viewed from anterolateral portal, of osteochondritis dissecans. Fragmentation of articular cartilage from the capitellum is seen in the bottom half of the field of view. Above, synovitis is prevalent.
Patient Positioning Operating Room
FIGURE 16.3. Operating room setup and patient positioning. The patient's arm is suspended with 10 lb of traction in 90° of flexion.
Radial Head Synovitis
FIGURE 16.4. Small osteochondral loose bodies adherent to synovium in the anteromedial aspect of the elbow as viewed from the anterolat-eral portal.
FIGURE 16.5. Removal of large loose body using a grasping forceps.
Large Elbow Osteophyte

FIGURE 16.7. Large loose body in the posterior compartment as viewed from the posterolateral portal.

View From Soft Spot Portal Elbow
FIGURE 16.8. Posteromedial osteophyte in the elbow of a throwing athlete as viewed from the posterolateral portal.
FIGURE 18.4. An arthroscopic photograph of the radio-capitellar joint as viewed from the proximal anteromedial portal.
FIGURE 18.5. While supinating and pronating the forearm, the surgeon accomplishes progressive removal of the radial head.

FIGURE 18.6. While visualizing the joint through the anteromedial portal, the surgeon uses the direct lateral, or soft spot, portal to complete radial head excision.

FIGURE 18.6. While visualizing the joint through the anteromedial portal, the surgeon uses the direct lateral, or soft spot, portal to complete radial head excision.

Anteromedial Drilling
FIGURE 18.7. The pilot hole is drilled through the olecranon fossa and exits anteriorly into the coronoid fossa. This hole determines the depth of bone between these two areas and facilitates resection.
Radial Head Removal
FIGURE 18.8. The previously made drill hole is enlarged until it can accommodate the coronoid in flexion and the olecranon in extension. The hole can be extended until the medial and lateral columns of the distal humerus are encountered.
Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Everything you wanted to know about. How To Cure Tennis Elbow. Are you an athlete who suffers from tennis elbow? Contrary to popular opinion, most people who suffer from tennis elbow do not even play tennis. They get this condition, which is a torn tendon in the elbow, from the strain of using the same motions with the arm, repeatedly. If you have tennis elbow, you understand how the pain can disrupt your day.

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