Contents

20.1 Introduction 412

20.1.1 Diet and Cancer 412

20.1.2 Flavonoids and Cancer 412

20.1.3 Anthocyanins 413

20.1.4 Anthocyanins and Cancer 414

20.2 Antioxidant Activity 416

20.2.1 Structural Characteristics Effecting Antioxidant Activity 416

20.2.2 Glycosylation and Antioxidant Capacity 416

20.2.3 Absorption, Metabolism, and Biological Antioxidant

Activity 417

20.2.4 Effect of pH on Antioxidant Activity 418

20.2.5 Compartmentalization and Antioxidant Activity 418

20.3 Beyond Radical Scavenging 419

20.3.1 Direct Protection against DNA Damage 419

20.3.2 Enzymatic Antioxidant Defense 419

20.3.3 Cell Cycle and Tumor Development 420

20.4 Hormone Activity 421

20.5 Inflammation 422

20.5.1 Inflammation and Arachidonic Acid Metabolism 422

20.5.2 Inflammation, Oxidation, and Carcinogenesis 424

20.6 Chemical-Induced Carcinogenesis 424

20.6.1 Phase I Xenobiotic Detoxification 424

20.6.2 Phase II Xenobiotic Detoxification 425

20.7 Conclusions 425

References 426

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