Epidemiology of renal cell cancer

Renal cell cancer (RCC) represents on average over 90% of all malignancies of the kidney that occur in adults in both sexes. Overall it is the 12th most common site in men and 17th in women. In males living in industrialized areas including Japan, it is as common as non-Hodgkin lymphoma ranking 6th, while in less developed areas it ranks 16th, in the same order of magnitude as carcinoma of the nasopharynx. In women it ranks 12th and 17th in developed and developing countries respectively {749}. The incidence is low in the African and Asian continents but not in Latin America where around 1995 Uruguay recorded one of the highest rates in the world. The highest rates in both men and women were observed in the Czech Republic with 20 and 10 annual new cases per 100,000 population respectively, age standardized {2016}. The lowest rates recorded were less that 1 new case per 100,000 showing a 10-fold variation in the risk of the disease. The latest systematic analyses of time trends of the incidence of kidney cancer indicate a general increase in both sexes in all monitored regions, up until the mid-80s {481}. These trends were paralleled by mortality, which thereafter began to slow down or even fall in some high risk countries {2843}. After the low peak in children due to nephroblas-toma, the incidence of renal cell cancer increases steadily after age 40 years as most epithelial tumours but the risk levels off or even declines from age 75 in both sexes. It is two to three times more common in men than in women in both high and low risk countries {2016}.

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