When microbials invade, the body's defenses go into action to surround and kill microbials. The inflammatory response is the first line of attack bringing white blood cells to the site of the infection in an attempt to stifle the spread of the microbial. Microbials that cause infections are called pathogens.

Symptoms of inflammation can disrupt the patient's normal daily activities. Anti-inflammatory medication is administered to patients to reduce the inflammatory response enabling the patient to return to normal activities.

Sometimes the microbial attack overwhelms the body's defenses. In these cases the patient requires medication to help the body destroy the micro-bial. The most commonly prescribed medication to combat microbials is an antibiotic.

There are two types of antibiotics: bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal. Bacterio-static antibiotics stop bacteria from growing inside the body. Bacteriocidal antibiotics kill bacteria.

In this chapter, you learned about the most commonly prescribed antibiotics. You learned how they work, how to administer them, their side effects, and when they should not be administered to a patient.

In the next chapter you will learn about respiratory diseases and about the medications that are prescribed to treat those diseases.


1. A new infection caused by a bacterium that is resistant to the present antibiotics being given is called a

(a) communicable infection.

(b) superinfection.

(c) a hospital acquired infection.

(d) None of the above

2. A patient should always be asked if he or she is allergic to any medications, foods, or herbals or who has a family history of allergies to antibiotics. This is because

(a) patients who have a family member who is allergic to an antibiotic might also have an allergy to some antibiotics.

(b) shell fish contain bacteria.

(c) patients can contract drug resistant bacteria from shellfish.

(d) All of the above

3. Antibiotics fight off bacteria by

(a) inhibiting the bacteria's ability to make protein called protein synthesis.

(b) inhibiting the bacteria from growing a cell wall.

(c) disrupting or altering the permeability of the bacteria's membrane.

(d) All of the above

4. All antibiotics kill bacteria.

5. Some antibiotics kill only specific bacteria

6. What chemical mediators bring about the inflammatory reaction by vasodilatation, relaxing smooth muscles, making capillaries permeable, and sensitizing nerve cells within the affected area to pain?

(b) Sulfonamides

(c) Prostaglandins inhibitors

(d) Prostaglandins

7. Bacteriocidal antibiotics can only stop the growth of bacteria.

8. Which of the following symptoms are possible side effects of an antibiotic?

(c) Hives and itching

(d) All of the above

9. The patient's white blood count should be studied after the patient is given an antibiotic.

10. Penicillin is the most effective and least toxic antibiotic.

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