Fluids

The osmolality of many IV fluids is similar to serum osmolality, which is

290 mOsm/kg H2O. IV fluids are:

• Isotonic. This is in the iso-osmolar range (240 to 340 mOsm/L) where the concentration of the IV fluid is the same as concentration of intracellu-lar fluid (NaCl 0.9%, normal saline).

• Hypotonic. This is in the hypo-osmolar range (< 240 mOsm/L) where the concentration of the IV fluid is less than the concentration of intracel-lular fluid (NaCl 0.45%, sodium chloride).

• Hypertonic. This is in the hyper-osmolar range (> 340 mOsm/L) where the concentration of the IV fluid is more than the concentration of intracellu-lar fluid (Dextrose 5% in 0.45% saline).

IV solutions are classified as crystalloids, colloids, or lipids.

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