Cephalosporins Nursing Diagnosis and Collaborative Problems

Here are the common nursing diagnoses that are related to a patient who is receiving cephalosporins.

• Altered bowel elimination pattern related to antibiotic-associated pseudo-membranous colitis

• Risk for superinfection

• Altered protection related to hypoprothrombinemia and superinfection

First Generation: Effective against gram-positive bacteria

Pregnancy Category: B

Route

Dose

Time

Cefadroxil (Duricef)

Protein-Binding: 20%

Half-Life: V2-2 hours

PO

500 mg

Every 12 hours

Cefazolin (Ancef, Kefzol)

Protein-Binding: 75%-85%

Half-Life: 72-272 hours

IV

0.25-1.5 g

Every 6-8 hours

IM

1 g

Presurgery

Cephalexin (Keflex)

Protein-Binding: 65%-80%

Half-Life: 0.5-1 hour

PO

250-500 mg

Every 6 hours

Cephalothin (Keflin)

Protein-Binding: 10%-15%

Half-Life: 0.5-1.2 hours

IM/IV

0.5-1 g

Every 4 to 6 hours

Cephapirin (Cefadyl)

Protein-Binding 40%-50%

Half-Life: 0.5-1 hour

IM /IV

0.5-1 g

Every 4 to 6 hours

Cephradine (Velosef, Anspor)

Protein-Binding: 20%

Half-Life: 1-2 hours

PO

250-500 mg

Every 8 hours

IM/IV

0.5-1 g

Every 6 hours

Second Generation: Increased activity against gram (-)

microorganisms

Pregnancy Category: B

Route

Dose

Time

Cefaclor (Ceclor)

Protein-Binding

: 25%

Half-Life 0.5-2 hours

PO

250-500 mg

Every 8 hours

IM/IV

500 g

Every 6 hours

Cefamandole (Mandol)

Protein-Binding

: 60%-75%

Half-Life: 0.5-1 hour

IM/IV

500 mg

Every 6-8 hours

Cefmetazole (Zefazone)

Protein-Binding

: 68%

Half-Life: 2.5-3 hours

IV

2g

Every 12 hours

Cefonicid (Monocid)

Protein-Binding: 98%

Half-Life: 0.5-1.2 hours

IM/IV

0.5-1 g

Every 24 hours

Cefotetan (Cefotan)

Protein-Binding

: 85%

Half-Life: 3-5 hours

IM /IV

102 g

Every 12 hours

Cefoxitin (Mefoxin)

Protein-Binding: 70%

Half-Life: 45 minutes-1 hour

IV

102 g

Every 6 to 8 hours

Cefprozil (Cefzil)

Protein-Binding: 99%

Half-Life: 1-2 hours

PO

500 mg

Every 12 hours

Second Generation: Increased activity against gram (-)

microorganisms (continued)

Pregnancy Category: B

Route

Dose

Time

Cefurozine (Ceftin, Zinacef)

Protein-Binding: 50%

Half-Life: 1.5-2 hours

PO

250-500 mg

Every 12 hours

IM/IV

0.75-1.5 g

Every 8 hours

Loracarbef (Lorabid)

Protein-Binding: Unknown

Half-Life: 1 hour

PO

200-400 mg

Every 12 hours

Third Generation: More active against gram (-); ceftazidime and cefoperazone are also effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram -) and ^-lactamase-producing microbial strains; less effective against gram (+) cocci Pregnancy Category: B

Route

Dose

Time

Cefixime (Suprax)

Protein-Binding: 65%

Half-Life: 2.5-4 hours

PO

200 mg

Every 12 hours

Cefoperazone (Cefobid)

Protein-Binding: 70%-80%

Half-Life: 2.5 hours

IV

1-2 g

Every 12 hours

Cefotaxime (claforan)

Protein-Binding: 30%-40%

Half-Life: 1-1.5

-3 hours

IV

1-2 g

Every 12 hours

Third Generation (continued)

Pregnancy Category: B

Route

Dose

Time

Cefpodoxime (Vantin, Proxetil)

Protein-Binding

: 20%-40%

Half-Life: 2-3 hours

PO

200 mg

Every 12 hours

Ceftazidime (Fortaz)

Protein-Binding

: 10%-17%

Half-Life: 1-2 hours

IM /IV

0.5-2 g

Every 8 to 12 hours

Ceftibuten (Cedax)

Protein-Binding: Unknown

Half-Life: 1.5-3 hours

PO

400 mg

Once per day

Ceftriaxone (Recephin)

Protein-Binding

: 85-95%

Half-Life: 8 hours

IV

1-2 g

Every 24 hours

Ceftizoxime (Cefizox)

Protein-Binding: 30%-60%

Half-Life: 2 hours

IM/IV

500 mg

Every 8 to 12 hours

Cefdinir (Omnicef)

Protein-Binding: Unknown

Half-Life: 1.7 hours

PO

300 mg or 600 mg/d

Every 12 hours

Fourth Generation: Cefipime same as

third generation +

more resistant to ^-lactamases

Pregnancy Category: B

Route

Dose

Time

Cefepine (Maxipime)

Protein-Binding: Unknown

Half-Life 0.5-2 hours

IM.IV

0.5-1 g

Every 12 hours

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