T It

Along their course, sliding tendons may undergo flexion and consequent spatial misalignment from the corresponding muscle's functional axis. In order for correct biomechanical function, the angular points and lever fulcri of the tendon must be kept in their physiological osteo-fibrous grooves. The anatomic structures that carry out this task are the retinacula - focal transverse thickenings of the deep fascia that are securely anchored to bone eminences. The correct functioning of their...

Shoulder

Longitudinal view of long head of biceps tendon. H humerus T long head of the biceps tendon * tendon sheath DM deltoid muscle Axial view of pectoralis major tendon. H humerus BM short head of biceps muscle CM coracobrachialis muscle * pectoralis major tendon DM deltoid muscle SHOULDER Longitudinal view Coraco-acromial ligament Longitudinal view of coraco-acromial ligament. H humerus C coracoid process A acromion SS supraspinatus tendon CAL coraco-acromial ligament DM deltoid muscle Longitudinal...

Tt

WRIST VOLAR Longitudinal view Flexor tendons Long axis view of flexor tendons. R radius L lunate C capitate PFT profundus flexor tendons SFT superficialis flexor tendons RLC radio-luno-capitate ligament WRIST VOLAR Longitudinal view Carpal tunnel (median nerve) Carpal tunnel long axis view of the median nerve. R radius L lunate C capitate PFT profundus flexor tendons SFT superficialis flexor tendons RLC radio-luno-capitate ligament MN median nerve FR flexor retinaculum WRIST DORSAL Dorsal axial...

Cartilage

Calcified Cartilage Diagram

Cartilage is a greatly specialized type of connective tissue, mainly composed of water (70-80 by wet weight). It is avascular and aneural. The solid component of cartilage is formed of cells (chondrocytes) that are scattered in a firm gel-like substance (extracellular matrix) consisting of collagen and proteoglycans. Collagen forms a network of fibrils, which resists the swelling pressure generated by the proteoglycans. In the musculoskeletal system there are two types of cartilage hyaline and...

Gout

In patients with long-standing untreated gout, monosodium urate crystal deposition on the surface of the articular cartilage results in hypere-choic enhancement of the superficial margin, which can range from the homogeneous thickening of the synovial space-cartilage interface, to areas of focal deposition (Fig. 4.6 a,b). Due to the deposition of monosodium urate crystals, reflectivity of the superficial margin is no longer dependant upon the angle of insonation, and a panoramic visualization...

Nerves

From an anatomical point of view, nerves are characterized by a complex internal structure made of nervous fibers (containing axons, myelin sheaths and Schwann cells) grouped in fascicles, and loose connective tissue (containing elastic fibers and vessels) (Fig. 3.24 a).A closer look at nerve sheaths demonstrates an external sheath - the outer epineurium - which surrounds the nerve fascicles. Each fascicle is invested in turn with a proper connective sheath - the perineurium - which encloses a...

Synovial cavity and articular capsule

The synovial cavity Fig. 3.6 is the space found between bone segments and articular capsule it is delimited by a fibrous wrap internally covered by a synovial membrane and contains a slight film of synovial fluid. The synovial cavity consists, depending on where it is found, of the joint cavity, the bursae and the tendon sheaths 11 . Anatomical diagram of a synovial joint.Insertion and development of the articular capsule with the synovial membrane, articular cartilage and cavity,fat pads and...

Tendons adnexa and ligaments

Power Doppler Technique

Tendons are critical biomechanical units in the musculoskeletal system, the function of which is to transmit the muscular tension to mobile skeletal segments. They are extremely resistant to traction, almost like bone. A tendon with a 10 mm2 transverse section can bear a maximum of 600-1000 kg. On the other hand, tendons are not very elastic, and can only tolerate a maximum elongation of 6 before being damaged. Tendons have very slow metabolism, even during action. This can be significantly...

Artifacts

Artifacts result from the changes to which the ultrasound beam is subjected when passing through biological tissues. On the other hand, artifacts can also be due to the operator's using faulty scanning technique. Operators must have a deep knowledge of the different types of artifacts because these can represent not only problem with image interpretation, but also an important source of diagnostic information. In fact, while some artifacts reduce the diagnostic power of the scan reverberation,...