Uga

Stop

Cys

Euplotes

*"Unusual code" is used in nuclear genes of the listed organisms and in mitochondrial genes as indicated. source: S. Osawa et al., 1992, Microbiol. Rev. 56:229.

*"Unusual code" is used in nuclear genes of the listed organisms and in mitochondrial genes as indicated. source: S. Osawa et al., 1992, Microbiol. Rev. 56:229.

▲ FIGURE 4-21 Two-step decoding process for translating nucleic acid sequences in mRNA into amino acid sequences in proteins. Step D: An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase first couples a specific amino acid, via a high-energy ester bond (yellow), to either the 2' or 3' hydroxyl of the terminal adenosine in the corresponding tRNA. Step 2 A three-base sequence in the tRNA (the anticodon) then base-pairs with a codon in the mRNA specifying the attached amino acid. If an error occurs in either step, the wrong amino acid may be incorporated into a polypeptide chain. Phe = phenylalanine.

dimensions, the folded tRNA molecule has an L shape with the anticodon loop and acceptor stem forming the ends of the two arms (Figure 4-22b).

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