Although DNA stores the information for protein synthesis and mRNA conveys the instructions encoded in DNA, most biological activities are carried out by proteins. As we saw in Chapter 3, the linear order of amino acids in each protein determines its three-dimensional structure and activity. For this reason, assembly of amino acids in their correct order, as encoded in DNA, is critical to production of functional proteins and hence the proper functioning of cells and organisms.
Translation is the whole process by which the nucleotide sequence of an mRNA is used to order and to join the amino acids in a polypeptide chain (see Figure 4-1, step 3). In eu-karyotic cells, protein synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm, where three types of RNA molecules come together to perform different but cooperative functions (Figure 4-19):
1. Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries the genetic information transcribed from DNA in the form of a series of three-nucleotide sequences, called codons, each of which specifies a particular amino acid.
2. Transfer RNA (tRNA) is the key to deciphering the codons in mRNA. Each type of amino acid has its own subset of tRNAs, which bind the amino acid and carry it to the growing end of a polypeptide chain if the next codon in the mRNA calls for it. The correct tRNA with its attached amino acid is selected at each step because each specific tRNA molecule contains a three-nucleotide sequence, an anticodon, that can base-pair with its complementary codon in the mRNA.
3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) associates with a set of proteins to form ribosomes. These complex structures, which physically move along an mRNA molecule, catalyze the assembly of amino acids into polypeptide chains. They also bind tRNAs and various accessory proteins necessary for protein synthesis. Ribosomes are composed of a large and a small subunit, each of which contains its own rRNA molecule or molecules.
Growing polypeptide chain aa3
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