Review The Concepts

1. Using specific examples, describe the two phenomena that give rise to the diversity of adhesive molecules.

2. Cadherins are known to mediate homophilic interactions between cells. What is a homophilic interaction, and how can it be demonstrated experimentally for E-cadherins?

3. What is the normal function of tight junctions? What can happen to tissues when tight junctions do not function properly?

4. What is collagen, and how is it synthesized? How do we know that collagen is required for tissue integrity?

5. You have synthesized an oligopeptide containing an RGD sequence surrounded by other amino acids. What is the effect of this peptide when added to a fibroblast cell culture grown on a layer of fibronectin absorbed to the tissue culture dish? Why does this happen?

6. Blood clotting is a crucial function for mammalian survival. How do the multiadhesive properties of fibronectin lead to the recruitment of platelets to blood clots?

7. Using structural models, explain how integrins mediate outside-in and inside-out signaling.

8. How do changes in molecular connections between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cytoskeleton give rise to Duchenne muscular dystrophy?

9. What is the difference between a cell strain, a cell line, and a clone?

10. Explain why the process of cell fusion is necessary to produce monoclonal antibodies used for research.

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