16.1 Translocation of Secretory Proteins Across the ER Membrane

16.2 Insertion of Proteins into the ER Membrane

16.3 Protein Modifications, Folding, and Quality Control in the ER

16.4 Export of Bacterial Proteins

16.5 Sorting of Proteins to Mitochondria and Chloroplasts

16.6 Sorting of Peroxisomal Proteins

Proteins are sorted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria, chloroplasts, peroxisomes, and the nucleus by this general process (Figure 16-1).

A second general sorting process applies to proteins that initially are targeted to the ER membrane, thereby entering the secretory pathway. These proteins include not only soluble and membrane proteins that reside in the ER itself but also proteins that are secreted from the cell, enzymes and other resident proteins in the lumen of the Golgi complex and lysosomes, and integral proteins in the membranes of





Plasma membrane


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