O

Inner membrane

Cristae

Outer membrane

Intermembrane space

Matrix granules

Intermembrane space

Matrix granules

▲ FIGURE 5-26 Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion. Most ATP production in nonphotosynthetic cells takes place in mitochondria. The inner membrane, which surrounds the matrix space, has many infoldings, called cristae. Small calcium-containing matrix granules also are evident. [From D. W. Fawcett, 1981, The Cell, 2d ed., Saunders, p. 421.]

▲ FIGURE 5-27 Electron micrograph of a plant chloroplast.

The internal membrane vesicles (thylakoids) are fused into stacks (grana), which reside in a matrix (the stroma). All the chlorophyll in the cell is contained in the thylakoid membranes, where the light-induced production of ATP takes place during photosynthesis. [Courtesy of Biophoto Associates/M. C. Ledbetter/Brookhaven National Laboratory.]

the cytosol, where 2 ATP molecules per glucose molecule are generated. The terminal stages of oxidation and the coupled synthesis of ATP are carried out by enzymes in the mitochondrial matrix and inner membrane (Chapter 8). As many as 28 ATP molecules per glucose molecule are generated in mitochondria. Similarly, virtually all the ATP formed in the oxidation of fatty acids to CO2 is generated in mitochondria. Thus mitochondria can be regarded as the "power plants" of the cell.

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