As cargo proteins move from the cis face to the trans face of the Golgi complex by cisternal progression, modifications to their oligosaccharide chains are carried out by Golgi-resident enzymes. The retrograde trafficking of COPI vesicles from later to earlier Golgi compartments maintains sufficient levels of these carbohydrate-modifying enzymes in their functional compartments. Eventually, properly processed cargo proteins reach the trans-Golgi network, the most-distal Golgi compartment. Here they are sorted into vesicles for delivery to their final destination. In this section we discuss the different kinds of vesicles that bud from the trans-Golgi network, the mechanisms that segregate cargo proteins among them, and key processing events that occur late in the secretory pathway. The transport steps mediated by the major types of coated vesicles are summarized in Figure 17-18.
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