Initiation

Polymerase binds to promoter sequence in duplex DNA. "Closed complex"

RNA polymerase

Polymerase melts duplex DNA near transcription start site, forming a transcription bubble. "Open complex"

Polymerase catalyzes phosphodiester linkage of two initial rNTPs.

Start site on template strand

Stop site on template strand

RNA polymerase

Start site on template strand

Stop site on template strand

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