► FIGURE 8-4 The glycolytic pathway by which glucose is degraded to pyruvic acid. Two reactions consume ATP; forming ADP and phosphorylated sugars (red); two generate ATP from ADP by substrate-level phosphorylation (green); and one yields NADH by reduction of NAD+ (yellow). Note that all the intermediates between glucose and pyruvate are phosphorylated compounds. Reactions 1, 3, and 10, with single arrows, are essentially irreversible (large negative AG values) under conditions ordinarily obtaining in cells.


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