I I Promoter-proximal | | Enhancer; element yeast UAS

▲ FIGURE 11-12 General pattern of control elements that regulate gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes and yeast. (a) Genes of multicellular organisms contain both promoter-proximal elements and enhancers, as well as a TATA box or other promoter element. The promoter elements position RNA polymerase II to initiate transcription at the start site and influence the rate of transcription. Enhancers may be either upstream or downstream and as far away as 50 kb from the transcription start site. In some cases, enhancers lie within introns. For some genes, promoter-proximal elements occur downstream from the start site as well as upstream. (b) Most S. cerevisiae genes contain only one regulatory region, called an upstream activating sequence (UAS), and a TATA box, which is =90 base pairs upstream from the start site.

similarly to enhancers and promoter-proximal elements in higher eukaryotes. Most yeast genes contain only one UAS, which generally lies within a few hundred base pairs of the start site. In addition, ,S. cerevisiae genes contain a TATA box =90 base pairs upstream from the transcription start site (Figure 11-12b).

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