has a AG0' of —686 kcal/mol and is the reverse of photo-synthetic carbon fixation. Cells employ an elaborate set of enzyme-catalyzed reactions to couple the metabolism of 1 molecule of glucose to the synthesis of as many as 30 molecules of ATP from 30 molecules of ADP. This oxygen-dependent (aerobic) degradation (catabolism) of glucose is the major pathway for generating ATP in all animal cells, nonphotosynthetic plant cells, and many bacterial cells.
Light energy captured in photosynthesis is not the only source of chemical energy for all cells. Certain microorganisms that live in deep ocean vents, where sunlight is completely absent, derive the energy for converting ADP and Pi into ATP from the oxidation of reduced inorganic compounds. These reduced compounds originate in the center of the earth and are released at the vents.
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