In the resonance hybrid on the right, one of the electrons from the P=O double bond has accumulated around the O atom, giving it a negative charge and leaving the P atom with a positive charge. These charges are important in noncova-lent interactions.

▲ FIGURE 2-3 The dipole nature of a water molecule. The symbol 8 represents a partial charge (a weaker charge than the one on an electron or a proton). Because of the difference in the electronegativities of H and O, each of the polar H—O bonds in water has a dipole moment. The sizes and directions of the dipole moments of each of the bonds determine the net dipole moment of the molecule.

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