A hydrogen bond is the interaction of a partially positively charged hydrogen atom in a molecular dipole (e.g., water) with unpaired electrons from another atom, either in the same (intramolecular) or in a different (intermolecular) molecule. Normally, a hydrogen atom forms a covalent bond with only one other atom. However, a hydrogen atom cova-lently bonded to an electronegative donor atom D may form an additional weak association, the hydrogen bond, with an acceptor atom A, which must have a nonbonding pair of electrons available for the interaction:
The length of the covalent D—H bond is a bit longer than it would be if there were no hydrogen bond, because the acceptor "pulls" the hydrogen away from the donor. An important feature of all hydrogen bonds is directionality. In the strongest hydrogen bonds, the donor atom, the hydrogen atom, and the acceptor atom all lie in a straight line. Nonlinear hydrogen bonds are weaker than linear ones; still, multiple nonlinear hydrogen bonds help to stabilize the three-dimensional structures of many proteins.
Hydrogen bonds are both longer and weaker than cova-lent bonds between the same atoms. In water, for example, the distance between the nuclei of the hydrogen and oxygen atoms of adjacent, hydrogen-bonded molecules is about 0.27 nm, about twice the length of the covalent O—H bonds within a single water molecule (Figure 2-6a). The strength of a hydrogen bond between water molecules (approximately 5 kcal/mol) is much weaker than a covalent O—H bond (roughly 110 kcal/mol), although it is greater than that for many other hydrogen bonds in biological molecules (1-2 kcal/mol). The extensive hydrogen bonding between water molecules accounts for many of the key properties of this compound, including its unusually high melting and boiling points and its ability to interact with many other molecules.
The solubility of uncharged substances in an aqueous environment depends largely on their ability to form hydrogen bonds with water. For instance, the hydroxyl group (—OH) in methanol (CH3OH) and the amino group (—NH2) in methylamine (CH3NH2) can form several hydrogen bonds with water, enabling these molecules to dissolve in water to
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