▲ FIGURE 2-16 Chemical structures of hexoses. All hexoses have the same chemical formula (C6H12O6) and contain an aldehyde or keto group. (a) The ring forms of D-glucose are generated from the linear molecule by reaction of the aldehyde at carbon 1 with the hydroxyl on carbon 5 or carbon 4. The three forms are readily interconvertible, although the pyranose form (right) predominates in biological systems. (b) In D-mannose and D-galactose, the configuration of the H (green) and OH (blue) bound to one carbon atom differs from that in glucose. These sugars, like glucose, exist primarily as pyranoses.
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