Generation Of Protonmotive Force

Chemical energy

Mitochondria and aerobic bacteria

Electric potential +

Exoplasmic face

Chemical energy

Mitochondria and aerobic bacteria

Electric potential +

Light energy

Chloroplasts and photosynthetic bacteria

Exoplasmic face

Synthesis of ATP

H+ symport

H+ antiport

Transport of molecule (X or Y) H+ X |-| H+ against concentration gradient

Rotation of bacterial flagella

Light energy

Chloroplasts and photosynthetic bacteria

H+ H+ concentration gradient

Membrane impermeable to H+

Synthesis of ATP

H+ symport

H+ antiport

Transport of molecule (X or Y) H+ X |-| H+ against concentration gradient

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