D

0.61A N sina

where a is the angular aperture, or half-angle, of the cone of light entering the objective lens from the specimen; N is the refractive index of the medium between the specimen and the objective lens (i.e., the relative velocity of light in the medium compared with the velocity in air); and A is the wavelength of the incident light. Resolution is improved by using shorter wavelengths of light (decreasing the value of

Fluorescence microscopy

Atoms

Proteins

Organelles Cells

1 nm

Transmission electron microscopy

(a) Optical microscope Detector -

Projection -lens

Dichroic mirror

Objective -

Specimen stage

Condenser -Mirror

Excitation filter

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