Ordering of Signaling Pathways As we learn in later chapters, expression of many eukaryotic genes is regulated by signaling pathways that are initiated by extracellular hormones, growth factors, or other signals. Such signaling pathways may include numerous components, and double-mutant analysis often can provide insight into the functions and interactions of these components. The only prerequisite for obtaining useful information from this type of analysis is that the two mutations must have opposite effects on the output of the same regulated pathway. Most commonly, one mutation represses expression of a particular reporter gene even when the signal is present, while another mutation results in reporter gene expression even when the signal is absent (i.e., constitutive expression). As illustrated in Figure 9-8b, two simple regulatory mechanisms are consistent with such single mutants, but the double-mutant phenotype can distinguish between them. This general approach has enabled geneticists to delineate many of the key steps in a variety of different regulatory pathways, setting the stage for more specific biochemical assays.

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10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

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