A

receiver domain homologous to the region of PhoB that is phosphorylated by activated PhoR. The receiver domain of the response regulator is associated with a second domain that determines the protein's function. The activity of this second functional domain is regulated by phosphorylation of the receiver domain. Although all transmitter domains are homologous (as are receiver domains), the transmitter domain of a specific sensor protein will phosphorylate only specific receiver domains of specific response regulators, allowing specific responses to different environmental changes. Note that NtrB and NtrC, discussed above, function as sensor and response regulator proteins, respectively, in the two-component regulatory system that controls transcription of glnA. Similar two-component histidyl-aspartyl phosphorelay regulatory systems are also found in plants.

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