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450 humans who carried skeletal deposits of Ra and Ra for up to 50 years. For residual skeletal burdens >0.5 mCi, the occurrence of osteoporosis, dense-bone necrosis, trabecular coarsening, and spontaneous bone fractures increased with increasing skeletal burden.

5.4.2.3.3 Pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and mechanisms: NA

5.4.2.3.4 Reproductive and Developmental: NA

5.4.2.3.5 Carcinogenesis Evans (95) summarized >450 cases of humans with skeletal burdens of

Ra and/or Ra. For residual skeletal burdens ranging from 0.5 to 60 mCi of Ra, the fractional incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses or mastoids was about 40% and appeared to be independent of residual body burden. However, in individuals with tumors, the latency period was determined to be related to the residual body burden. It has been noted that breast cancer, liver cancer, and chronic myeloid leukemia have also been associated with radium exposure

5.5 Standards, Regulation, or Guidelines of Exposure

No oral reference dose or inhalation reference concentration for radium has been established. The

USEPA has established a maximum contaminant level of 5 pCi/L for combined Ra and Ra in drinking water and has classified radium as a class A carcinogen; this represents an agent for which sufficient evidence exists to support a causal relationship between exposure and cancer.

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