Appendix A Ideas for Healthy Food Choices

Make gradual changes to your diet. Eating healthfully requires making overall smart food selections throughout your life. Choosing a food that is less nutritious every once in awhile does not mean your diet is bad; just make those foods the exception in your diet, not the rule.

Table A-1. Healthier Food Selections


In place of:

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Whole grains and pastas, and brown rice.

Bleached, white, or processed varieties.


Cooking pastas and rice in broths.

Cooking pastas and rice in water with butter.

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Low-fat or non-fat salad dressings or vinagrette on salads.

Creamy salad dressings.

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Vegetables marinated in herbs and lemon or lime juice.

Adding butter to vegetables.

Canadian bacon or ham.



Ground turkey, extra-lean ground beef, or lean, trimmed red meats.

Ground beef.

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2 egg whites.

1 whole egg.

Poultry or fish.

Marbled red meats.

Steaming, broiling, baking, or grilling.


Low-fat or non-fat sour cream, cottage cheese (whipped until smooth), or yogurt.

Sour cream.


Skim milk.

Whole milk or nondairy creamer.

Low-fat cheeses.



In place of:

Applesauce for baking.

Oil (1:1 substitution).

Wine or broth-based sauces.

Cream and butter sauces.

Canola, olive, and safflower oils.

Animal fats, coconut oil, and palm oil.



Spray butter or margarine.


5-A-Day Challenge

Some ideas to help you increase the number of fruits and vegetables you eat each day to meet the 5-A-Day challenge are: (see Table 3-1 for serving sizes.)

♦ Eat fruit or drink fruit juice at breakfast.

♦ Snack on fruits and vegetables (especially bite-sized portions such as baby carrots or dried fruits) throughout the day.

♦ Include one or more side servings of vegetables at lunch and dinner.

♦ Eat at least one Vitamin A-rich fruit or vegetable - good food sources include apricot, cantaloupe, carrot, mango, papaya, pumpkin, spinach, sweet potato, romaine lettuce, mustard greens, winter squash, kale, and collards.

♦ Eat at least one Vitamin C-rich fruit and vegetable - good food sources include orange, grapefruit, kiwi, apricot, pineapple, cantaloupe, strawberry, tomato, mango, plum, broccoli, cauliflower, brussel sprouts, peppers, collards.

♦ Eat at least one Fiber-rich fruit and vegetable - good food sources include apple, banana, berries, figs, prunes, cherry, kiwi, orange, date, pear, cooked beans (kidney, lima, pinto, black, lentils), black-eyed peas, peas, carrot, potato, and corn.

♦ Eat at least one Cruciferous vegetable (from cabbage family) -examples include broccoli, cauliflower, brussel sprouts, bok choy, red and green cabbage, kale, and turnip.

Remember: 5 fruits and vegetables a day is the minimum - more is better!





Grains & Cereals

6-11 servings

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