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Features of the Fourth Edition

Chapters presenting infectious diseases, these are often combined with photographs showing the symptoms that the organisms cause. Evans Roberts, Jr. a member of the author team who is licensed and board certified in internal medicine by the American Board of Internal Medicine, and in public health and medical laboratory microbiology by the American Board of Microbiology ensures that clinical coverage is accurate, modern, and instructive to those planning to enter health careers. The incomparable treatment of infectious diseases, which are organized by human body systems, is supported with generous photographs, summary tables, case histories, and critical-thinking questions. Elements ofthe unparalleled clinical coverage include

Preface to the First Edition

The goal of this atlas is to provide a maximal amount of useful information, in the form of photographs and drawings, so that the initial learning experience will be pleasant, logical, and fruitful, and the review process effective and beneficial to longterm professional goals. To this end several guiding principles have been followed. First, the entire anatomy of the central nervous system (CNS), external and internal, has been covered in appropriate detail. Second, a conscientious effort has been made to generate photographs and drawings of the highest quality illustrations that clearly relay information to the reader. Third, complementary information always appears on facing page. This may take the form of two views of related structures such as brainstem or successive brain slices or a list of abbreviations and description for a full-page figure. Fourth, illustrations of blood supply have been included and integrated into their appropriate chapters. When gross anatomy of the brain...

Scheduling and Perioperative Management

The otologic surgeon must take a multifaceted approach to preparing the patient and the operating room for commencement of the surgery. After anesthesia induction, the surgeon should be in the operating room, making sure the microscope assembly and organization are correct and that the patient's position is appropriate. That effort, not left to the operating room staff, is the responsibility of the operating surgeon. Ultimately, the surgeon is accountable for making sure that the instrumentation is as it should be and the otologic drill is suitable. A case scheduled at a facility that is new or infrequently attended requires that the surgeon coordinate his plans with the nursing supervisor for otolaryngology. if possible, document the procedure with photographs, obtainable from a standard printer or via digital capture. With photographs, the medical record reflects permanent verification of the operation. in addition, the surgeon can distribute a copy to the patient, which supplements...

Preparing A Laboratory Report

Include graphs, tables, photographs, and DNA sequencing electropherograms in this section. Each figure and table must have a title, a number, and a legend that contains all information needed to interpret the data. Specify units on the abscissa and ordinate of graphs. Label columns and rows in tables. Number each lane on photographs used to document gel electrophoresis data, and indicate the contents of each lane in the figure legend. Place each figure or table immediately after the paragraph in which it is first cited or on the page following its first mention.

Rationale for Labels and Abbreviations

No universally accepted way to identify specific features or structures in drawings or photographs exists. The variety of methods seen in currently available atlases reflects the personal preferences of the authors. Such is the case in the present endeavor. The goal of this atlas is to present basic functional and clinical neuroanatomy in an understandable and useful format.

The Electron Microscope

Developed in the 1930s, the electron microscope uses beams of electrons and magnetic lenses rather than light waves and optical lenses to view a specimen. Very thin slices of the specimen are cut so that the internal structures can be viewed. Microscopic photographs called micrographs are taken of the specimen and viewed on a video screen. Specimens can be viewed up to 200,000 times normal vision. However, living specimens cannot be viewed because the specimen must be sliced.

Cordering Cougar Sighting In Wa In 2016

Significant sightings Tony Healy and Paul Cropper estimate they have collected more than 1,000 reports from 1885 to 1994 in every Australian state except Tasmania. Two photographs, both taken in Western Australia (by Barry Morris in 1978 and Alan Lawrence in 1982) only show silhouettes and are inconclusive.

Analysis of Disease Data with Regard to Geographical distribution

In mapping studies, using raw numbers of cases rather than case rates can lead to erroneous conclusions. Cases may be concentrated in large business complexes, factories, or apartment buildings simply due to the large number of people working or living in the area. Approximate population densities and locations can be obtained from census information or from satellite photographs in uncooperative environments such as Sverdlovsk. Host and environmental factors associated with geography that can play a role in initiation of disease include the presence of vectors, climate, population density, nutritional and dietary practices, occupation, recreational habits, economic development, and socially disruptive events such as war and natural disasters.46

Representations and Mental Mechanisms

We understand how representations work reasonably well from our use of language and other symbols to communicate with others or to facilitate our own activities. This book, for example, contains words and diagrams that I have used as tools to convey ideas to you. To give someone directions to a store, you might describe the route in words or draw a map. To remember someone's phone number you might write it on a sticky note. To compare your appearance before and after a haircut, you might take photographs. All of these activities involve representational vehicles spoken or written words, diagrams, maps, and pictures, which can be characterized in terms of their intrinsic physical properties. They are used to designate something else the mechanisms by which the mind works, the route through space that you can take to reach the store, your appearance before and after the haircut which constitute the content of the representations. Recent empirical study of our use of representations in...

Qualitative Determinations

The detection of the target organism is dependent upon laboratory staff recognizing a typical colony when the only guide to appearance that they may have available is a description in a pharmacopoeia that can, at best, be described as vague, e.g., well-developed colourless colonies is the EP description of salmonellae growing upon deoxycholate citrate agar. It is an irony that as the quality of pharmaceutical products has improved, the pathogens in question very rarely arise in the bioburden. Increasing numbers of laboratory staff may be scrutinizing plates for organisms that they have never actually seen growing. This is a strong argument for ensuring that those same staff regularly conduct validation tests to confirm the nutritive properties of the medium, so that they have an opportunity to see the target organisms. This validation requirement that the test procedures should be capable of detecting culture collection strains of the objectionable organisms is also an ideal...

Presentation of long restriction enzymedigested DNA molecules

The optical mapping system. (A) Genomic DNA is extracted from lysed cells. (B) DNA molecules are elongated and immobilized onto a positively charged glass surface using a microfluidic device. (C) A restriction enzyme cleaves cognate sites of the surface-bound DNA molecules. (D) The digested single DNA molecules are stained with a fluorescent dye and images are collected using a fully automated fluorescent microscope scanning system and a high resolution digital camera. (E) Single images are processed and merged together. (F) The flattened and overlapped single DNA molecule images are analyzed by machine vision software to generate single DNA molecule optical maps. (G) The single DNA molecule optical maps are formed into contigs based on overlapping restriction sites. Whole genome optical maps are constructed using ensembles of single DNA molecule maps. The dark gray barcode represents the consensus map, which includes data measurements from every single molecule map (light...

Image acquisition processing and machine vision moving from images to data files

We considered the type of objects we could create during the presentation stage and how to optimally image them as a single problem to be solved. This tact enabled us to critically engineer features for data acquisition in robust and operationally simple ways. As such, we developed a high-speed imaging instrument (named, genome Zephyr''), or a single molecule scanner, built around a standard fluorescence microscope featuring full computer control over focusing, sample positioning and digital camera functionalities, thus enabling user-free operation launched from a friendly interface. Throughput is greatly enhanced by a distributed laser illumination system offering stable, bright, monochromatic illumination to all of the Zephyr scanners in our laboratory. Essentially, the Zephyr automatically acquires strings of contiguous, overlapping micrographs, by tracking stripes of deposited DNA molecules laid down by the microfluidic system. Automatic image processing takes these images,...

Clinical Features

Facial photographs of a 3-year-old girl with corresponding coronal CTs before and after steroid injection. The lesion proved to be a vascular hamartoma with mixed capillary, cavernous, and lymphangiomatous components that responded well to steroid injection (G) but later developed a spontaneous orbital hemorrhage (I). (A,B) Initial presentation. (C,D) Enlarged lesion prior to injection. (E,F) Three days postinjection, whitish steroid deposits are seen in the slit lamp photo (arrow). (G,H) Four months after injection. (I,J) One year after injection.

Murine Model of Accelerated Atherosclerosis in Mice Infected with a Periodontal Pathogen

Figure 1 Oral infection with P. gingivalis accelerates early atherosclerosis in apoE-null mice. Representative photographs of the proximal aorta demonstrate increased atherosclerosis in a P. gingivalis-infected (b) versus a noninfected (a) apo E-null mouse at 17 weeks of age. Scale bar, 1 mm. Oil red O staining of cryosections at the aortic sinus from control mice revealed few small fatty streaks (c), whereas atherosclerotic lesions were greater in number and size in infected animals (d), scale bar 50 mm. Quan-titation of atherosclerotic lesion area at the aortic sinus (e) revealed that mean lesion area was significantly increased in infected versus noninfected mice (12,753 1,128 versus 9,080 951mm2, n 25 group, p 0.008). Republished with permission of Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology from Lalla, E., et al. (2003). Oral infection with a periodontal pathogen accelerates early atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-null mice. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23(8),...

M Experimental Figure 1930

Chemoattractant is used to demonstrate signal-induced gradient of Gp subunit. False color images of amebas expressing (a) a GFP-tagged Gp subunit and (b) a GFP-tagged cAMP receptor, which served as a control. When an external source of chemoattractant was placed near the cells (at the top of the photographs), the cells turned toward the source. (a) The Gp subunit became concentrated at the leading edge of the cell, closest to the chemoattractant, and depleted from the tail. (b) In contrast, the cAMP receptor retained a uniform distribution in the cell membrane. W. F. Loomis and R. H. Insall, 1999, Nature 401 440-441 courtesy of Peter Devreotes Laboratory.

Fpga Hardware Accelerators

The operations without any instruction decoding steps. The two most important disadvantages of the ASIC technology are the long design process time and the total costs of the fabrication setup. Furthermore, the parallel architecture is implemented as an inflexible structure of transistors and connections which are highly optimized for the selected ASIC manufacturing process. This structure optimization together with the inflexible structure on the ASIC leads to a long design process for such a chip. This is the reason why the ASIC technology is usually restricted to applications that are needed at high volumes. Good examples are specific image processing chips like digital cameras or network chips.

Telemedicine Aspects of the Physician Patient Relationship

Disease, ailment, pain, injury, deformity, or physical or mental condition, whether by the use of drugs, surgery, manipulation, electricity, telemedicine, the interpretation of tests, including primary diagnosis of pathology specimens, images, or photographs, or any physical, mechanical, or other means whatsoever (38) (emphasis added).

Digital Image Manipulation

Noise reduction filters remove the random pixel values that may be generated when, for example, a digital camera is working at maximum gain. Such noise is usually reduced during digital image collection by averaging successive images of the same field. If such real-time filtering is not practicable, or still leaves a noisy image, random intensity fluctuations can be filtered post hoc. Noise reduction filters take a block of pixels of a predetermined size, and replace the intensity value of the central pixel with a value based on the average or median pixel intensity within the block. This has the effect of eliminating rogue, high or low single pixel values. Algorithms based on averages may result in an unacceptable loss of contrast or even the appearance of pseudoresolution artifacts (3). However, such artifacts can be avoided using filters that rank rather than average pixel values, such as the median filter included in many software packages.

Did Evolution Fix Human Values

Primate Characteristics Evolution

In our experiment, eight female participants successively looked at a great number of pictures (320), deciding whether each picture was beautiful or not. Thus, participants themselves fixed the final aesthetic condition of every stimulus. High art pictures, both realistic and abstract, decorative pictures, and photographs of urban and natural landscapes - that is, highly varied material - were used as stimuli.

Autism And Theory Of Mind

Individuals with autism have been consistently reported to perform poorly on theory-of-mind tasks, yet show preserved capacities in other domains (see Baron-Cohen, 1995, for a review). For example, these individuals fail to appreciate the distinction between beliefs and reality, yet understand that photographs can misrepresent current reality (Charman & Baron-Cohen, 1995 Leekam & Perner, 1991). Autistic individuals, while insensitive to other people's beliefs, demonstrate an understanding of other people's basic emotions (e.g., happiness and sadness1 BaronCohen, 1991 Baron-Cohen, Spitz, & Cross, 1993). Finally, autistic individuals who fail to appreciate knowing nevertheless understand seeing (Baron-Cohen & Goodhart, 1994 Leslie & Frith, 1988) these individuals demonstrate an understanding that different observers see the same object in different ways, depending on how each observer is spatially located relative to the seen object (Reed, 1994 Reed & Peterson, 1990 Tan & Harris, 1991),...

Reporter Transgene Design

Fig. 1. (A,B) Dynamic progression of myogenin gene expression during the development of the skeletal musculature. The embryos shown, stained with X-gal for P-galactosidase activity, are from a transgenic line carrying a nuclear localized lacZ reporter under the control of 1.1 kb of myogenin 5'-flanking sequence (Ashby and P. W. J. R., unpublished data see ref. 6). At 11.5 dpc (A) intense bars of staining can be seen within the myotomal component of the somitic mesoderm. By 13.5 dpc (B), specific muscle blocks are clearly distinct. (C) Use of dual reporter transgenes within the same embryo. A coronal section through the hindbrain of a 9.5-dpc embryo is shown (anterior is uppermost). Blue staining resulting from P-galactosidase activity is derived from expression of the lacZ gene under the control of a Hoxb-2 enhancer, which is active in rhombomeres 3 and 5. A second construct harbors the alkaline phosphatase gene under the control of an enhancer from Hoxb-2, which directs expression in...

Documentation of Test Results

A record of the assay conditions and reagent lot numbers is kept with patient results. Identification of the technologist performing the assay may also be included. Documentation of quality and quantity of the isolated DNA or RNA is also required, especially if designated amounts of nucleic acids are used for an assay. Quantity and quality are documented in the form of spectropho-tometry or fluorometry data or quantity or gel photographs of high molecular weight DNA or ribosomal RNA quality (see Chapter 4). The quality of RNA analyzed by Northern blot or RT-PCR may be assessed by monitoring a housekeeping gene, ribosomal RNA expression, or other calibrator. In situ results, such as FISH, are correlated with histo-logical findings (stained sections) of tissue morphology. This is required when the molecular target detection is significant in specific cells for example, with p53 detection in tumor cells. Documentation includes images of at least one normal cell with at least two abnormal...

From Benign IPMN Hyperplasia Adenoma and IDA

Benign IPMN (hyperplasia adenoma) (fig. 3 a) and noninvasive IPMC (fig. 3b) have clearly defined cytoplasmic borders and small regular-sized cytoplasms. IDA has prominent anisocytosis, and poorly defined cytoplasmic borders (fig. 3c). A mixture of goblet cells is cytologically observed in benign IPMN (fig. 4a) and noninvasive IPMC (fig. 4b). This emphasizes the polyclonal-like finding. In contrast, these are cytologically hardly found in IDA (fig. 4c) 4 . IDA cells are monoclonal-like. In histological microscopic photographs, a polyclonal aspect is also recognized in IPMN 13, 22 and IPMC 7, 23 , but not in IDA. Several researchers have classified IPMN into clear-, dark-, and compact-cell types based on cytoplasm condensation, epithelial form and expression pattern of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC5AC 24, 25 . Other researchers have also proposed that the papillae of IPMN could be divided into two types intestinal and pancreatobiliary 26, 27 . In our experience 4 , goblet cells are usually found...

Analysis of Plasmids by Gel Electrophoresis

If cresol red has been used at Step 10, analyze the supernatants by performing PCR as described in Chapter 8, Protocol 1, using the remainder of each sample as a template. Cresol red (Merck Index) is orange to amber in acidic solutions (pH 2-3), yellow in solutions of pH 7.2, and red in alkaline solutions. In contrast to bromophenol blue and xylene cyanol, cresol red does not inhibit the thermostable DNA polymerase from Thermits aquaticus (Taq polymerase) (Hoppe et al. 1992). Thus, DNA solutions containing cresol red are viable templates in most amplification reactions. The dye migrates between xylene cyanol and bromophenol blue during agarose gel electrophoresis, with a size of -300 bp in a 2 agarose gel (Hoppe et al. 1992). Cresol red does not produce a shadow on photographs of agarose gels stained with ethidium bromide.

Internal Morphology of the Brain in Stained Sections Axial Sagittal Correlations with MRI

Although the general organization of Chapter 6 has been described in Chapter 1 (the reader may wish to refer back to this section), it is appropriate to reiterate its unique features at this point. Each set of facing pages has photographs of an axial stained section (left-hand page) and a sagittal stained section (right-hand page). In addition to individually labeled structures, a heavy line appears on each photograph. This prominent line on the axial section represents the approximate plane of the sagittal section located on the facing page. On the sagittal section this line signifies the approximate plane of the corresponding axial section. The reader can identify features in each photograph and then, using this line as a reference point, visualize structures that are located either above or below that plane (axial to sagittal comparison) or medial or lateral to that plane (sagittal to axial comparison). This method of presentation provides a format for reconstructing and...

The Genetic Code

Franklin learned X-ray crystallography while doing research in France after the war. She became especially skilled at using the technique to study compounds that did not form crystals, which included most biological chemicals. This expertise brought her to Maurice Wilkins's laboratory at King's College, part of the University of London, in 1950. Wilkins hoped Franklin could take photographs that would help the group determine the structure of DNA molecules. Some of Franklin's photographs were brilliant, and one of them helped James Watson and Francis Crick solve the puzzle of DNA's structure. (Wilkins has been criticized for showing this photograph to Watson without asking Franklin's permission first, but he felt that, as head of the laboratory, he had the right to do so.) Watson and others have said that Franklin herself might have worked out the DNA structure if she had had a scientific partner with whom she felt comfortable sharing her ideas. Franklin died of ovarian cancer in...

Material And Methods

For the immunohistological studies, pineal organs were incubated for 2 hours either in darkness or light in 0.5 ml of RPMI 1640 containing 1 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxantine (IBMX) and the nitric oxide (NO) donor S-nitroso-N-penicillamine (SNAP). After the incubation period the organs were immediately fixed for two hours by adding 1 ml of 4 paraformaldehyde and then processed for immunohistochemistry or NADPH-diaphorase staining. A semiquantitative evaluation of immunostained slices was conveyed from photographs using an image analysis system RAG 200 (Biocom, France).


Semiquantitative measurement of the intensity of cGMP-immunofluorescence after treatment of the light- and dark-adapted pineal organs with 100 iM S-nitroso-N-penicillamine (SNAP) for 5 minutes. The intensity of FITC-immunostained slices was determined from photographs using an image analysis system RAG 200 (Biocom France) and expressed in area of the entire pineal area with an optical density l00 (arbitrary units). **P 0.001 SNAP treated pineal organs vs coresponding groups (light-or dark-adapted) *P 0.01 dark-adapted vs. light-adapted group.

Psychological Impact

In the preliminary interviews, it is necessary that the patient gains (with the help of drawings or photographs) a full comprehension and acceptance of the kind, length, and inconveniences of the treatment and of the kind of rehabilitation. Only a conscious and motivated patient can profit from the treatment as a consequence, the orthopaedic team also must have the right psychological attitude. This attitude has to be complemented by two other qualities, especially if the treatment consists of compression-distraction techniques (i.e., a dynamic treatment that requires frequent adjustments) plenty of time (in connection with the need for clinical controls and device adjustments) and experience (interpreted as complete knowledge of the surgical instruments and techniques and full knowledge of one's own limitations, in order to avoid starting a treatment which is beyond one's ability, and as a source of ideas in order to improve particular techniques or particular treatment guidelines).

Clear Lake Catfish

Physical description Coelacanth-like fish with leglike lobed fins. Doglike head. Barbels. Distinctive scales. Horizontally oriented tail. Distribution Clear Lake, California. Significant sighting In October 1993, Lyle Dyslin caught a strange-looking, dog-headed fish after taking photographs of it, he released it back into the lake because it reminded him of his dachshund.

Dna Double Helix

Watson and Crick relied on other scientists' work to develop their DNA model. Part of that work was X-ray diffraction photographs of DNA crystals, such as the one shown in Figure 10-5. The photographs and crystals were produced by researchers Rosalind Franklin, shown in Figure 10-5, and Maurice Wilkins, at King's College in London.

Get Organized

A special class of software, known as the personal information manager (PIM), can help you use the computer as an organizational tool. PIMs come in many varieties, although this type of software has largely been replaced by the PDAs. PDAs range tremendously in price and complexity. Some are relatively simple, with a calculator, phone list, and one or two other functions. The more expensive models are fully functional computers, with word processing, spreadsheet, database, wireless Web access, a digital camera, etc. Cellular phones are also available that include many of the same functions as PDAs, such as appointment calendars, along with address books.

Orbital Imaging

Optic disk photographs show (A) mild optic nerve swelling, (B) more severe optic disk edema, and (C) optic atrophy. FIGURE 7.4. Optic disk photographs (A) show optic disk edema and choroidal folds that are seen better on the fluorescein angiogram (B) as alternating light (hyperfluorescent) and dark (hypofluo-rescent) lines. (C) Sagittal T1-weighted MR imaging shows an orbital mass compressing the posterior globe. FIGURE 7.4. Optic disk photographs (A) show optic disk edema and choroidal folds that are seen better on the fluorescein angiogram (B) as alternating light (hyperfluorescent) and dark (hypofluo-rescent) lines. (C) Sagittal T1-weighted MR imaging shows an orbital mass compressing the posterior globe.


Astrobiologists believe that within our solar system, life would most likely be found either on Europa, a moon of Jupiter, or on Mars. This is because Europa and Mars appear to have, or have had, water, which is crucial for all known forms of life. Europa has an icy crust, beneath which may be liquid water or even a liquid ocean. Mars is the planet that is closest to earth, and it has the most similar environment. Photographs suggest that flowing water once existed there. Besides missions to both these bodies, NASA also has future plans to return material from both a comet and an asteroid.

Final product fill

Figure 6.24 Photographic representation of a range of filter types and their stainless steel housing. Most filters used on an industrial scale are of a pleated cartridge design, which facilitates housing of maximum filter area within a compact space (a). These are generally housed in stainless steel housing units (b). Some process operations, however, still make use of flat (disc) filters, which are housed in a tripod-based stainless steel housing (c). All photographs courtesy of Pall Life Sciences, Ireland Figure 6.24 Photographic representation of a range of filter types and their stainless steel housing. Most filters used on an industrial scale are of a pleated cartridge design, which facilitates housing of maximum filter area within a compact space (a). These are generally housed in stainless steel housing units (b). Some process operations, however, still make use of flat (disc) filters, which are housed in a tripod-based stainless steel housing (c). All photographs courtesy of...

Treasured memories

All these memories, though rather different from other families', are a valuable part of living in multicoloured mayhem. Try to actively capture family outings, holidays, birthdays and other special moments, regardless ofhow chaotic they are. Use video tapes, photographs, scrap books and journals to store a wealth of memories for your children to treasure in later years. Things that seem bleak at the time can often be laughed about at a later date.

Historical Aspect

At the Togus VA Medical Center, with the approval of their IRB and volunteer patients undergoing lower extremity amputation, stimulation studies were carried out at 0.2 ms pulse duration with 20 pps frequency, with a portable, battery-operated, calibrated constant-current unit (Cordis Corp., Miami, Florida, Model 910 A). The pulse amplitudes for producing maximal stimulation and contraction in the largest of the nerves (medial sciatic) ranged from 0.6 to 2.5 mA, which falls well within the range of the Cochlear receiver-stimulating unit to be used 9, 10 . Using the Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, first edition edited by McMinn and Hutchings (Yearbook Medical Publishers, Inc., Chicago, Illinois), whose dissections were reproduced as life-size photographs, allowed for measurements of the diameters to be made at different points along the nerves. These measurements were in relatively close agreement with the amputated nerve diameters of the nine volunteer patients 10 .

Order Squamata

This series of photographs shows a snake, Dasypeltis scabra, swallowing a bird's egg. Prey is often larger than the diameter of the snake's head, so the process of swallowing can take an hour or more. This series of photographs shows a snake, Dasypeltis scabra, swallowing a bird's egg. Prey is often larger than the diameter of the snake's head, so the process of swallowing can take an hour or more.

Capillary Hemangioma

FIGURE 14.3. (A) Preoperative, (B,C) intraoperative, and (D) postoperative photographs of a 5-year-old girl with an upper eyelid hemangioma (E). The lesion was predominantly composed of proliferating endothelial cells but it also contained occasional abnormally formed large blood vessels. (F) Positive immuno-histochemical staining (brownish color) with factor VIII depicts tumor components infiltrating into orbicularis muscle. FIGURE 14.3. (A) Preoperative, (B,C) intraoperative, and (D) postoperative photographs of a 5-year-old girl with an upper eyelid hemangioma (E). The lesion was predominantly composed of proliferating endothelial cells but it also contained occasional abnormally formed large blood vessels. (F) Positive immuno-histochemical staining (brownish color) with factor VIII depicts tumor components infiltrating into orbicularis muscle.

Laboratory Records

Written records should be maintained that document all of the observations and findings made during testing. Such records may become invaluable during courtroom testimony in which allegations of poorly performed testing are being made. Laboratory records should include signed dated procedural notes generated by the individuals performing the testing a list of the specific equipment used during the testing photographs, charts, and graphs related to the testing chain of custody forms documenting the handling of the evidence by the laboratory and information regarding the complete consumption or the disposition of remaining evidence.


Examination documentation encompasses any documentation generated as a result of the analysis of submitted evidence. This may include technical notes, worksheets, charts, graphs, printouts, spectra, photographs, and other data or records used by examiners analysts to support their reported conclusions.

Parental explanation

The child's parents can be introduced to other parents whose child has already been through toe transfer surgery to discuss the surgery and outcomes and to see for themselves the function and appearance of a toe transfer for a similar congenital difference. Photographs and videos of similar children can also be viewed by the parents if


Although custom hardware systems are good research and proof-of-concept systems, they are typically more expensive to construct, operate, and support. In contrast, the Aperio system is a commercial off-the-shelf technology with vendor and user group support. Similar to the OSU custom scanner, the Aperio scanner also utilizes robotic stage and digital camera. However, design decisions reflect the goal of high throughput and high quality microscopy image digitization. Using a line camera for image acquisition improves acquisition speed and quality as the stage does not need to stop during the acquisition process, unlike tile-based systems 15 .

Clinical Studies

They can be recognized even at low magnification. At higher magnification, they show many thin capillary loops springing from an arteriole or the deep end of the arterial limb. On serial photographs, they seem to be associated with filling in of an avascular area by capillaries 8 . Therefore, they are believed to be indicators of capillary regeneration. These bushy formations should not be confused with ramified or branched capillaries described by other authors in other disorders and even in normal subjects.

Minnesota Iceman

Significant sighting After being alerted by university student Terry Cullen that a carnival was exhibiting a hairy man encased in ice, Ivan Sanderson and Bernard Heuvelmans visited the exhibit from December 16 to 18, 1968, at the home of its owner, Frank Hansen, near Rolling-stone, Minnesota. For three days, they examined the iceman and took detailed notes, sketches, and photographs. Most significantly, they noted that the creature had seemingly been shot in its right eye, with the bullet displacing the left eye a pool of blood apparently surrounded the back of its head. One forearm seemed to have an open fracture caused by a wound. Heuvelmans and Sanderson both detected an unmistakable odor of rotting flesh exuding from one corner of the exhibit. Gaseous exudations apparently formed bursts of semi-opaque, crystalline ice within the transparent block. Sanderson claimed to have tracked down hair samples taken from the iceman when it was browridge or sloping forehead the robust arms and...

Vaccine vectors

Figure 13.11 Photographs illustrating some deanroom-based processing equipment utilized in the manufacture of SmithKline Beecham's hepatitis B surface antigen product. (a) A chromatographic fractionation system, consisting of (from left to right) fraction collector, control tower and chromatographic columns (stacked formation). (b) Some of the equipment used to formulate the vaccine finished product. Photograph courtesy of SmithKline Beecham Biologicals s.a., Belgium Figure 13.11 Photographs illustrating some deanroom-based processing equipment utilized in the manufacture of SmithKline Beecham's hepatitis B surface antigen product. (a) A chromatographic fractionation system, consisting of (from left to right) fraction collector, control tower and chromatographic columns (stacked formation). (b) Some of the equipment used to formulate the vaccine finished product. Photograph courtesy of SmithKline Beecham Biologicals s.a., Belgium

Gigantic Octopus

Fofi Sightings

Significant sightings On November 30, 1896, a huge carcass was found washed up on Anastasia Beach, near St. Augustine, Florida. DeWitt Webb, a local medical doctor, examined and took several photographs of it. The specimen was 20 feet long, 4 feet high, and 5 feet wide. Its estimated weight was 5 tons. It had a pear-shaped, pinkish body with a silvery cast and was covered with 3-6 inches of extremely tough connective tissue. The stumps of five arms were evident, and some of the detached arms, one of which was 28 feet long and 8 inches thick, were found lying several feet away. Some of the internal organs were still present. A storm carried the mass out to sea in early January 1897, but it reappeared 2 miles farther south, and Webb managed to haul it up to higher ground using horses, tackle, and windlass. He identified the remains as an octopus and sent descriptions, photos, and tissue samples to Yale cephalopod expert Addison E. Verrill. Verrill first identified the mass as a Giant...


Loch Ness Monster Arthur Grant

Scientific name Nessiteras rhombopteryx, given by Peter Scott and Robert Rines in 1975 and based on the underwater photographs of 1972 and 1975. The name means the Ness wonder with the diamond-shaped fin. Sir Edward Mountain launched the first organized surveillance of the loch for five weeks in July and August 1934. Twenty unemployed men stood watch five days a week and generated eleven sightings and several photographs, most of which depicted boat wakes or wave effects. On July 29, 1955, bank manager Peter A. McNab took two photographs of an elongated animal off Urquhart Castle. Only one has survived. Some believe it shows a standing wave from a boat wake. On June 20, 1975, Robert Rines obtained two more subsurface photographs southeast of Temple Pier, one showing a gargoyle head with apparent horns and the other revealing the head, neck, and body of a plesiosaur-like animal. Many experts dispute that the photos show Nessie. G. E. Harwood concluded in 1977 that both images show...

Jungli Admi

Reginald Cooke and his wife, Margaret, were on the Sikkim-Nepal border at an altitude of 14,000 feet when they found and took photographs of tracks in the ground made by a heavy creature with an opposed toe. The Sherpa guides said they were made by Jungli-admi.

Fibrous Dysplasia

Fibrous Dysplasia Chinese Characters

FIGURE 16.7. (A, B) A 9-year-old patient with fibrous dysplasia showing elevation of the left eyebrow and inferior displacement of the left globe that are most apparent in straight and right upper gaze photographs. (C) Coronal CT image shows the irregular sclerosis of the frontal bone including the internal and external trabulae. (D) Intraoperative photograph reveals the knotty thickening of the superior orbital rim. (E) Histopathology reveals a mixture of fibrous tissue composed of uniform spindle cells and irregular discontinuous trabeculae of bone without osteoblastic activity. (F) The birefringence of young deposits of lamellar bone formation is seen through a polarizing lens. FIGURE 16.8. Intraoperative photographs show the use of the mallet and the osteotome to debulk the thickened dysplastic bone of the orbital roof in a lamellar fashion. Inset Gross photograph of the resected, thin bone chips from dysplastic bone of the orbital roof. FIGURE 16.8. Intraoperative photographs...

Theoretical Models

2 - 1 , then applies for example, if the control group were anxious patients rather than controls, would the same findings occur Or if only female faces were used Or if the faces were all familiar to the individual Or if the stimuli were short video clips rather than photographs So even an example as apparently straightforward as the processing of facial stimuli proves to be extremely complex once it is argued that the equivalent subtraction has to be achieved in several different ways before some confidence can be gained in the conclusions.


Since microscope cameras have a fixed aperture, exposure times depend only on lighting levels and the sensitivity of the digital collection device or photographic media. Long exposure times, particularly in fluorescence photomicrography, are usual. For digital cameras, long exposure times result in problems related to thermal noise. Consequently, images are usually averaged (see Subheading 3.7.1.), and highly sensitive CCD chips are used at low temperatures. For film, extended exposures (beyond as little as perhaps 2 s) result in particular problems for color photomicrography relating to reciprocity failure (see Subheading 3.9.1.).

Thai Mammoth

Significant sighting Thai princess Rangsrino-padorn Yukol took some blurry aerial photographs of a herd of twenty-eight elephants in the Omkoi District of northwestern Thailand during a forestry survey by helicopter in 1984. She characterized the animals as surviving mammoths.


Significant sightings In 1962, the Scripps Institute of Oceanography's Proa Expedition in the research vessel Spencer F. Baird took some 4,000 photos of the sea bottom in five trenches in the western Pacific to a depth of 35,800 feet. Several photographs showed fecal coils made by a hemichordate of uncertain taxonomy. Similar animals were later photographed by the Disturbance and Recolonization Experiment in a Manganese Nodule Area of the Deep South Pacific (DISCOL) project in the Peru Trench. Sources Henning Lemche, et al., Hadal Life as Analyzed from Photographs, Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening 139 (1976) 263-336 O. S. Tendal, What Became of Lemche's Lophenteropneust Deep-Sea Newsletter 27 (1998) 21-24 O. S. Tendal, Lemche's Lophenteropneust Widely Known but Still an Enigma, Deep-Sea Newsletter 28 (1999) 8 DISCOL Megafauna Atlas, http da_fig052.html.


Treatment may be observation, radioactive eye plaque (ruthenium or iodine), local resection, charged particles (proton beam), or enucleation. A small lesion may represent a naevus so it is important to document growth. This is carried out by three-monthly examinations with indirect ophthalmoscopy and serial photographs. An increase in size of 1 mm is significant.


The anonymous Mary F. submitted two photographs of an apparent sea monster allegedly taken in February 1976. Published in the Falmouth Packet on March 5, they show a three-humped object with a long, downward- 1977) 18-26 Janet and Colin Bord, Alien Animals (Harrisburg, Pa. Stackpole, 1981), pp. 26-32 Mark Chorvinsky, The 'Mary F.' Morgawr Photographs Investigation, Strange Magazine, no. 8 (Fall 1991) 8-11, 46-49, and, in the same issue, Interview Michael McCormick, 15, 58-59 Ulrich Magin, Morgawr Unborn The Genesis of the


Defense Security Service

Our thanks go to the following individuals whose photographs appear in this guide HM2 Jeanette Miller, HN Ellen Tate, HM1 (FMF) Rico Renteria, HM1 (SW AW) Michael Mitchell, HM2 (FMF) Keith Avery, J02 Cerise Fenton, Dr. Jeffrey Bennett, and Dawn Schultz. Also, many thanks to HM1 (FMF) Otis B. Brown, the USUHS Brigade, and Morale, Welfare, and Recreation (MWR) for allowing us to take pictures during the Navy PRTs and the MWR sponsored events. We also want to acknowledge Mr. Gene Jillson from Defense Visual Information Center for providing us with the Navy images that appear throughout this guide.

Sense of self

One area that is particularly problematic for Ben and I am sure many other autistic children, is his sense of self. For many years, I, Portage (the pre-school home education service) and anyone else working with Ben, spent a great deal of time and effort attempting to teach him that he was Ben. When I realized that Ben was not deaf, I very much wanted him to turn to his name or to know that he was the Ben that I was talking to and talking about. Every single day without any exception at all for at least thirty-six months I spent some time each day saying, Where is Ben - There he is and touching his chest. This actually proved more difficult than I first thought because if I pointed to Ben's chest and said There he is, he eventually learned to repeat my actions .fully believing that his chest and indeed everyone else's chest was this Ben that everyone was so keen to talk about I therefore tried with photographs of all the family, pointing out Ben. However he only noticed some tiny...

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