Simple phenolics are substituted phenols. The ortho, meta and para nomenclature refers to a 1,2-, 1,3- and 1,4-substitution pattern of the benzene ring, respectively, where in this case one of the functional groups is the hydroxyl group. With three functional groups, the substitution pattern can be 1,3,5, which, when all three substituents are identical, is designated as a meta-tri-substitution pattern, whereas the 1,2,6, substitution pattern is indicated by the prefix 'vic '(Figure 1-1).
OH OH OH OH
ortho meta para meta-tri vic-tri
Figure 1-1. Nomenclature for substitution patterns of phenolic compounds. R, R1 and R2 are generic substituents.
Examples include resorcinol (1,3-dihydroxybenzene; 1.2), a meta-dihydroxylated simple phenolic, and phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene; 1.3), a meta-trihydroxylated simple phenolic.
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