Inflammation begins when a stimulus, such as infection, physical stress, or chemical stress, produces cellular damage (Fig. 36.1). This damage initiates the activation of transcription factors that control the expression of many inflammatory mediators. Among the more important inflammatory mediators are the eicosanoids, biological oxidants, cytokines, adhesion factors, and digestive enzymes (proteases, hyaluronidase, collagenase, and elastase). Only the first three of these are therapeutic targets for anti-inflammatory drugs.
The inflammatory response changes with time and can be divided into phases. The rapid phase occurs within seconds to minutes and consists of vasodilation, increased blood flow, edema, and pain. The acute phase is characterized by induction of inflammatory genes by NF-kB and other transcription factors. During this phase, moderate amounts of inflammatory mediators are produced. The chronic phase occurs over months to years and is marked by dramatically increased production of inflammatory mediators. The secondary chronic phase of inflammation occurs after years of oxidative damage has degraded blood vessels and tissues. Such chronic inflammation appears to play a role in many disease states, such as arteriosclerosis and cancer.
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Everything you wanted to know about. How To Cure Tennis Elbow. Are you an athlete who suffers from tennis elbow? Contrary to popular opinion, most people who suffer from tennis elbow do not even play tennis. They get this condition, which is a torn tendon in the elbow, from the strain of using the same motions with the arm, repeatedly. If you have tennis elbow, you understand how the pain can disrupt your day.