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When solutions of directly acting cholinomimetics are applied to the eye (i.e., conjunctival sac), they cause contraction of the smooth muscle in two important structures, the iris sphincter and the ciliary muscles (Fig. 12.3). Contraction of the iris sphincter decreases the diameter of the pupil (miosis). Contraction of the circular fibers of the ciliary muscle, which encircles the lens, reduces the tension on the suspensory ligaments that normally stretch and flatten the lens, allowing the highly elastic lens to spontaneously round up and focus for near vision (accommodation to near vision).

The Prevention and Treatment of Headaches

The Prevention and Treatment of Headaches

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