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When solutions of directly acting cholinomimetics are applied to the eye (i.e., conjunctival sac), they cause contraction of the smooth muscle in two important structures, the iris sphincter and the ciliary muscles (Fig. 12.3). Contraction of the iris sphincter decreases the diameter of the pupil (miosis). Contraction of the circular fibers of the ciliary muscle, which encircles the lens, reduces the tension on the suspensory ligaments that normally stretch and flatten the lens, allowing the highly elastic lens to spontaneously round up and focus for near vision (accommodation to near vision).

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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