Synthesis and Secretion

Plasma calcium concentration is the principal factor regulating PTH synthesis and release. The increase in PTH synthesis and secretion induced by hypocalcemia is believed to be mediated through activation of parathyroid gland adenylyl cyclase and a subsequent increase in in-tracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).

Formation of PTH begins with the synthesis of several precursor molecules. PreproPTH is the initial pep-tide that is synthesized within the parathyroid gland, and it serves as a precursor to both proPTH and PTH. PreproPTH is formed within the rough endoplasmic reticulum, transported into the cisternal space, and then cleaved to form proPTH. The proPTH polypeptide is transported into the cisternal space, where another pro-teolytic cleavage occurs, forming PTH.

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