Study Questions

1. Opisthotonos is a convulsive condition that is often associated with the ingestion of strychnine. This condition is associated with all of the following EXCEPT

(A) Antagonism of the inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter glycine

(B) The predominance of glycine as an inhibitory amino acid transmitter in the spinal cord

(C) Antagonism of the inhibitory amino acid neu-rotransmitter GABA

(D) The convulsions lead to tonic extension of the body and all limbs

2. Which of the following classes of agents is useful in the treatment of attention deficit hyperkinetic disorder?

(A) Analeptic stimulants

(B) Benzodiazepines

(C) Xanthines

(D) Psychomotor stimulants

(E) Phosphodiesterase inhibitors

3. Which of the following mechanisms of action account for the effects of all analeptic stimulants except strychnine?

(A) Antagonism of chloride ion influx at the GABA receptor-chloride channel complex

(B) Increased release of catecholamines from CNS neurons

(C) Inhibition of cholinesterase leading to increased acetylcholine levels

(D) Antagonism of CNS adrenoceptors to reduce inhibition produced by catecholamines

(E) Antagonism of nicotinic receptors that inhibit motor neuron activity

4. The CNS stimulation produced by methylxanthines, such as caffeine, is most likely due to the antagonism of which of the following receptors?

(A) Glycine receptors

(B) Adenosine receptors

(C) Glutamate receptors

(D) GABA receptors

(E) Cholinergic muscarinic receptors

5. Cardiac stimulation is an adverse effect associated with the use of the psychomotor stimulants, such as amphetamine. Which of the following mechanisms is most likely responsible for this peripheral effect?

(A) Inhibition of vagal tone through an action in the CNS

(B) Indirect sympathomimetic effects in the periphery due to release of norepinephrine

(C) Inhibition of a GABA-mediated negative chronotropic effect at the heart

(D) Antagonism of muscarinic receptors in the heart

(E) Blockade of ganglionic transmission at sympathetic ganglia in the periphery

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