Study Questions

2. Cytotoxic agents such as azathioprine are effective immunosuppressants because they

(A) Bind to and inactivate circulating immunocom-

plexes

(B) Specifically inhibit IL-2 gene transcription

(C) Prevent the clonal expansion of T and B cells by inhibiting purine synthesis

(D) Induce the synthesis of antiidiotype antibodies

(E) Alkylate and cross-link DNA, preventing blas-togenesis

3. Interleukin-2 can be beneficial in the treatment of AIDS because it can

(A) Attach to the HIV virus, making it more susceptible to phagocytosis

(B) Bind to IL-2 receptors on responsive immune cells and stimulate the production of T helper and T cytotoxic cells.

(C) Cross-link antibodies on mast cell surfaces leading to degranulation.

(D) Activate the complement cascade by binding to the C5a fragment.

(E) Inhibit T suppressor cell activity and thereby stimulating the immune response

4. A 4-year-old boy has significantly reduced levels of IgA, IgM, IgD and IgE in his blood. Testing demonstrates that he did not develop the appropriate antibody titer following standard childhood vaccinations. The most probable cause of these deficiencies is

(A) Deficiency in macrophage function that is preventing the proper presentation of antigens to T cells

(B) Lack of a specific component of the complement cascade

(C) Alcohol abuse by the mother during pregnancy

(D) A primary immunodeficiency disease that is blocking the maturation of B cells into plasma cells

(E) An autoimmune disease targeted at basophil surface receptors

5. Which of the following best describes the side effects of cyclosporine therapy?

(A) Leukopenia, hypotension, hemolytic anemia

(B) Nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, hirsutism

(C) Thrombocytopenia, hypokalemia

(D) Hemorrhagic cystitis, hypoglycemia

(E) Increase circulating immune complexes, cardiac arrhythmia

Coping with Asthma

Coping with Asthma

If you suffer with asthma, you will no doubt be familiar with the uncomfortable sensations as your bronchial tubes begin to narrow and your muscles around them start to tighten. A sticky mucus known as phlegm begins to produce and increase within your bronchial tubes and you begin to wheeze, cough and struggle to breathe.

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