Pulmonary Smooth Muscle

The bronchial tree is innervated by both divisions of the autonomic nervous system. Postganglionic parasympa-thetic neurons innervate bronchial smooth muscle directly and produce bronchoconstriction when stimulated. Sympathetic noradrenergic neurons appear to innervate vascular smooth muscle and parasympathetic ganglion cells. The effect of noradrenergic fibers on ganglion cells is to inhibit their firing. There is some controversy concerning the role of noradrenergic fibers in the regulation of airway smooth muscle tone. There is no doubt, however, that adrenoceptors are present on bronchial smooth muscle and that epinephrine from the adrenal gland and drugs such as epinephrine and iso-proterenol produce bronchodilation of the airway.

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

This guide will help millions of people understand this condition so that they can take control of their lives and make informed decisions. The ebook covers information on a vast number of different types of neuropathy. In addition, it will be a useful resource for their families, caregivers, and health care providers.

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