HIV infects CD4+ T lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Viral entry is initiated when gp120 (SU), a glycoprotein on the surface of the viral envelope, attaches itself to the CD4 surface glycoprotein of the target cell (Fig. 51.1). This interaction produces a conformational change in gp120 that allows it to bind to a chemokine coreceptor: CXCR4 for CD-4 T (helper) cells or CCR5 for macrophages. Chemokine coreceptor
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