Phenothiazines are classified on the basis of their chemistry, pharmacological actions, and potency. Chemical classifications include the aliphatic (e.g., chlorproma-zine; Thorazine),piperidine (e.g., thioridazine;Mellaril), and piperazine subfamilies. The piperazine derivatives are generally more potent and pharmacologically selective than the others. The thioxanthenes (e.g., thio-thixene; Navane) are chemically related to the pheno-thiazines and have nearly equivalent potency. The butyrophenone haloperidol (Haldol) is structurally distinct from the two preceding groups, offering greater potency and fewer autonomic side effects. The dibenzo-diazepine clozapine (Clozaril) bears some structural resemblance to the phenothiazine group but causes little extrapyramidal toxicity. The benzisoxazole risperidone (Risperdal) is representative of many of the newer agents in having a unique structure relative to the older groups while retaining antipsychotic potency and a better side effect profile.

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