Pharmacological Actions

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The benzodiazepines, when given by slow IV infusion to induce anesthesia, have minimal influences on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Thus, they may be logical substitutes for barbiturates in poor-risk patients who cannot tolerate cardiovascular depression. In other respects, they appear pharmacologically similar to the barbiturates. IV administration causes unconsciousness without analgesia; skeletal muscle relaxation is inadequate for intubation or short surgical procedures. Consequently, when these characteristics of anesthetic management are desired, benzodiazepines must be coadministered with appropriate analgesic drugs and neuromuscular blocking agents.

The popularity of the benzodiazepines as an anesthetic supplement in cardiac surgery is related to their amnesic potential. They can ensure unawareness during the initial period, when the anesthetics are being diluted in the fluid of the bypass circuit. Lorazepam is often chosen for this purpose because it is longer acting and more potent than either midazolam or diazepam. Benzodiazepine administration may cause amnesia even when used in doses that do not produce unconsciousness. Antegrade amnesia may occur with the doses that are used to relieve preoperative anxiety.

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Free Yourself from Panic Attacks

Free Yourself from Panic Attacks

With all the stresses and strains of modern living, panic attacks are become a common problem for many people. Panic attacks occur when the pressure we are living under starts to creep up and overwhelm us. Often it's a result of running on the treadmill of life and forgetting to watch the signs and symptoms of the effects of excessive stress on our bodies. Thankfully panic attacks are very treatable. Often it is just a matter of learning to recognize the symptoms and learn simple but effective techniques that help you release yourself from the crippling effects a panic attack can bring.

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