Examples of X groups are fluorine in isoflurophate (Floropryl, no longer available in the United States or Canada) and echothiophate (Phospholine). Parathion and malathion (insecticides) are thiophosphates that must be converted to oxyanalogues to become active. The organophosphates, except for echothiophate, are very lipid soluble.

In the interaction of isoflurophate with AChE, a phosphorylated intermediate is formed and fluoride is released.An important characteristic of the organophos-phate-induced inhibition is that the bond between the phosphate and the enzyme is very stable. While the regeneration of most carbamylated enzymes occurs with a half-life of minutes or hours, the recovery of a phospho-rylated enzyme is generally measured in days. These agents are referred to, therefore, as irreversible inhibitors.

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