concentration are more subtle. Triclosan has been shown to bind to cell membrane targets and inhibit enzymes associated with the phosphotransferase and proton motive force systems.
Triclosan plus copolymer is available in toothpaste. Commercially available dentifrice concentrations contain 0.3% triclosan and 2.0% PVM/MA copolymer. This product (Total) was tested in a large number of short-term controlled clinical trials, from which a statistically significant but clinically modest 15 to 20% plaque reduction was reported. The same toothpaste composition also exhibited significant anticalculus properties. Typically, the reported reductions in calculus formation ranged from 25 to 35%. Finally, of considerable interest is the observation that triclosan inhibits gingivitis by a mechanism independent of its antiplaque activity. In a clinical study, minimal plaque effects accompanied an average 50% reduction in gingivitis. An explanation of this surprising effect stems from research conducted using a gingival fibroblast cell culture model. These experiments revealed that triclosan could inhibit the IL-1-induced production of prostaglandin E2.
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