The kidneys are susceptible to toxicity from xenobiotics (Fig. 7.1) because they too have a high blood flow. Cells of the tubular nephron face double-sided exposure, to agents in the blood on the basolateral side and in the filtered urine on the luminal side. Proximal tubule cells are generally the site of nephrotoxicity, since these cells have an abundance of cytochrome P450 and can transport organic anions and cations from the blood into the cells, thereby concentrating these chemicals manyfold.

Chemically induced kidney damage is typically seen as acute tubular necrosis (ATN). The cells in the proximal tubule are affected. Reabsorption of water, elec-

Pulmonary Toxicants








Cadmium oxide


Chlorine gas


Nitrogen dioxide

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