Ginkgo leaf extract appears to act primarily as a mild cerebral vasodilator that increases cerebral blood flow and reduces blood viscosity. Ginkgolides inhibit platelet activating factor, and this may improve microcircula-tory blood flow in atherosclerotic disease with slightly increased risk of bleeding. There appears to be an an-tioxidant effect that may be neuroprotective. Although some studies suggested a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) effect, this is considered to have questionable clinical relevance.
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