Lopinavir is available in the United States only as a fixed-dose combination with ritonavir (Kaletra). In this regimen, a low dose of ritonavir is used to inhibit the rapid inactivation of lopinavir by CYP3A4. Side effects, which are generally mild, include diarrhea, nausea, asthenia, and headache. Pancreatitis occurs rarely. Ritonavir is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 and also inhibits CYP2D6. In addition to the drugs contraindi-cated for all protease inhibitors, flecainide, propa-fenone, pimozide, and rifampin should not be given with lopinavir-ritonavir combination therapy.
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