Lodoquinol

Iodoquinol (diiodohydroxyquin, Yodoxin, Moebiquin) is a halogenated 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative whose precise mechanism of action is not known but is thought to involve an inactivation of essential parasite enzymes. Iodoquinol kills the trophozoite forms of E. histolytica, B. coli, B. hominis, and Dientamoeba fragilis.

Iodoquinol is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is excreted in the urine as glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. Most of an orally administered dose is excreted in the feces. Iodoquinol has a plasma half-life of about 12 hours.

Iodoquinol is the drug of choice in the treatment of asymptomatic amebiasis and D. fragilis infections. It is also used in combination with other drugs in the treatment of other forms of amebiasis and as an alternative to tetracycline in the treatment of balantidiasis.

Adverse reactions are related to the iodine content of the drug; the toxicity is often expressed as skin reactions, thyroid enlargement, and interference with thyroid function studies. Headache and diarrhea also occur. Chronic use of clioquinol, a closely related agent, has been linked to a myelitislike illness and to optic atrophy with permanent loss of vision.

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