Lamivudine (3TC, Epivir) is a cytosine nucleoside analogue with activity against HIV-1, HIV-2, and hepatitis B virus. It is approved as part of a multidrug regimen for the therapy of HIV infection in adults and children and has been used for HIV postexposure prophylaxis. Combination products contain lamivudine with either zidovudine (Combivir) or zidovudine and abacavir (Trizivir). The use of low-dose lamivudine in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B is described in Chapter 50.
Lamivudine is the best-tolerated NRTI. Its most common adverse effects include headache, malaise, fatigue, and insomnia. Pancreatitis is rare. Gastrointestinal complaints are common with lamivudine-zidovudine therapy but are probably mainly due to the zidovudine component. Lamivudine resistance sometimes occurs early in treatment. Cross-resistance to zal-citabine, didanosine, and abacavir can occur simultaneously. Withdrawal of lamivudine in patients infected with both hepatitis B virus and HIV can cause a flare-up of hepatitis symptoms.
Lamivudine is associated with an increased risk of pancreatitis in children and should be used with great caution in children who have had pancreatitis or are at high risk for it. Dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with renal impairment. Lamivudine should not be used in combination with zalcitabine, because they inhibit each other's activation by phosphorylation. Trimethoprim inhibits the renal elimination of lamivudine.
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