L

TABLE 36.1 Biological Effects of Eicosanoids

Eicosanoid Primary Biological Effects

PGEj PGE2

txa2

LTC4, D4, E4 LTB4

Vasodilation, decreased gastric acid secretion, bronchodilation Vasodilation, decreased gastric acid secretion, pain sensitization, uterine contraction, cervical ripening, maintenance of patent ductus arteriosus, bronchodilation, fever Bronchoconstriction, uterine contraction, increases drainage from aqueous humor Vasodilation, maintenance of patent ductus arteriosus, inhibition of platelet aggregation, pain sensitization, gastric cytoprotec-tion

Platelet aggregation, bronchoconstriction Bronchoconstriction

Chemoattraction and activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes uterus following fetal death, missed abortion, or benign hydatidiform mole. Carboprost (Hemabate) is a PGF2 analogue that can be used to terminate pregnancy or to control refractory postpartum bleeding by stimulating uterine contraction. Primary pulmonary hypertension can be treated by the synthetic PGI epoprostenol (Flolan). Elevated intraocular pressure may be treated with latanoprost (Xalatan), an analogue of PGF2. Zafirlukast (Accolate) is an oral leukotriene receptor antagonist for control of the inflammatory process of asthma (see Chapter 39). Zileuton (Zyflo) inhibits the first enzyme in the lipoxygenase pathway and is used for the treatment of asthma.

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