The first clinical uses of a local anesthetic agent occurred in 1884, when cocaine was employed as a topical agent for eye surgery and to produce a nerve block. These events inaugurated a new era, that of regional anesthesia. New applications were developed, including spinal, epidural, and caudal anesthesia. The search for a better local anesthetic led to chemical synthesis of a number of other compounds that have more selective local anesthetic properties and few systemic side effects.

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