Morphine and most other opioids produce some degree of constipation by increasing sphincter tone and decreasing gastric motility. Such an effect is uncomfortable for patients required to take opioids chronically. Tolerance to the constipative effects of the opioids does not generally occur. In addition, the decrease in gastric motility increases gastric emptying time and reduces absorption of other drugs. The constriction of sphincters, especially the bile duct, may result in increased pain in certain patients with biliary colic or other GI distress. constriction of the urinary sphincter can lead to painful urine retention in some patients. The effects of opioids on the GI tract are largely mediated by the parasympathetic release of acetylcholine. All of the opi-oid receptors have been shown to mediate such GI effects.
Was this article helpful?
Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.