Diseases at a genetic level can result from several causes, including (1) mutation in a gene, (2) loss of expression of a gene, (3) elevated expression of a gene, or (4) expression of a pathogenic viral or foreign gene. In each case, gene replacement or excision therapy might be desirable. Theoretically, the disease gene could be replaced through a homologous recombination event. Depending on the design of the replacement gene, it also would be possible to engineer stop codons or nonsense sequences into the internal domains of a gene to ensure loss of protein production. Excision of an entire
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