Figure 452

Differences between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria that affect antibiotic access. A. The cell wall structure of a gram-positive organism. The exposed porous peptidoglycan (murein) layer allows easy antibiotic access. B. The cell wall structure of a gram-negative organism. The outer membrane contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and porins with narrow, restrictive channels that function as barriers to antibiotic permeability. (Modified with permission from Nikaido H. Prevention of drug access to bacterial targets: Permeability barriers and active efflux. Science 1994;264:382-388.)

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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