Differences between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria that affect antibiotic access. A. The cell wall structure of a gram-positive organism. The exposed porous peptidoglycan (murein) layer allows easy antibiotic access. B. The cell wall structure of a gram-negative organism. The outer membrane contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and porins with narrow, restrictive channels that function as barriers to antibiotic permeability. (Modified with permission from Nikaido H. Prevention of drug access to bacterial targets: Permeability barriers and active efflux. Science 1994;264:382-388.)
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